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Hangar

CSH-2

Specifications:

Crew: 2 (pilot and weapons operator)
Length: 18.73 m
Fuselage length: 16.39 m (without guns)
Main rotor diameter: 15.58 m
Tail rotor diameter: 6.355 m
Wingspan: 3.2 m
The maximum width of fuselage: 1.28 m
Height: 5.185 m
The area swept rotor: 190.6 m ²
The base chassis: 11.77 m
Wheel track: 2.78 m
Empty weight: 5730 kg
Normal take-off weight: 7500 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 8750 kg
The mass of fuel in internal tanks: 1469 kg
Volume of fuel tanks: 1854 liters (+2 × 750 liters drop tanks)
Powerplant: 2 × Turbomeca Makila 1K2 turboshaft
Engine power: 2 × 1845 m. a. (2 × 1376 kW (take off))




Throughout its history, South Africa's armed forces were equipped with little import of military equipment. Enterprises mastered the repair of the local industry, manufacture of individual parts and components, and eventually a full production of such a complex military equipment such as airplanes, "Mirage" and helicopters "Alouette" III and "Puma". Perhaps all would have limited the production under license or joint development with the West, military equipment, but as they say, there would be a blessing in disguise. In 1977 the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 418, which imposed an arms embargo of South Africa

At the beginning of the war dominated the South African Air Force in the air. Shipments to Angola modern air defense systems from the Soviet Union radically changed the situation in the air over bushlendom. French helicopters were, in fact, civilian cars and were not designed to perform combat missions in terms of fire resistance.

In addition to the "Alouette" and "Pumam" needed helicopters, capable of escorting its transport helicopters to suppress enemy air defenses and if necessary, to conduct air combat helicopters Mi-25. Purchase of such cars abroad was excluded because of UN sanctions, modernizatsionnny potential "Alouette" III and "Cougar" was limited, and the industry itself had absolutely no experience of independent development of such machines. Nevertheless, the creation of a helicopter gunship original design seemed the only way out of this situation.

And the decision was made. For the development of the helicopter took the firm "Atlas Aircraft Corporation", founded in 1963 and engaged in the manufacture of aircraft for the Air Force in South Africa. Air Force concluded a contract with the firm in 1981

Based on the experience of war in bushlende worked out the basic requirements for combat helicopter: high reliability and maintainability in the long-term effects in the dusty airfields away from home, reliable navigation in areas devoid of specific targets, a high level of automation of electronic systems to reduce the load on the pilot , low level of vibration.

Work on the car was accompanied by increased secrecy, and was carried out by successive approximations due to a lack of experience. The first step that led eventually to the creation of rotary-wing attack aircraft "Royvalk", was the development of a demonstration helicopter XH-1 "Alpha", destined to test the concepts of weapons systems and cockpit layout. The design of the helicopter have been widely used system of units and a helicopter "Alouette" III. The first flight of HN-1 "Alpha" has made February 2, 1985 trials were successful and convinced the South African Air Force, that the firm "Atlas" may independently develop a combat helicopter.

The main task of the combat was still fighting against armored targets, a minor - the enemy helicopters. Requirements for the helicopter, not significantly different from the requirements of the U.S. Army helicopter AH-64 "Apache".

For more mining structures, weapons systems and new helicopters, two helicopters AS.330 "Puma" were converted into flying stands. In the first helicopter-stand, called xmp-1 (Experimental Test Platform) "Beta", perfected the design of the wing of small aspect ratio and subsystems future CSH-2. The first flight xmp-1 made in 1986 on the second helicopter stand-xmp-2 perfected weapons control systems and self armament: 20mm cannon GA-1 on the turrets, missiles of various classes - NAR, laser-guided antitank guided missiles, guided missiles " air - the air "with infrared homing.

The next step was to develop a prototype CSH-2 - Helicopter XDM (Experimental Demonstration Model). The first flight of the helicopter XDM completed February 11, 1990, and in 1992 began flight tests of the second helicopter pilot CSH-2 - ADM (Advanced Demonstration Model). The first flight of the third helicopter pilot EDM (Engeneering Development Model) was held in 1996

Helicopter CSH-2 "Royvalk" is made of now-classic single-rotor helicopter gunships for the scheme with a four-bladed propeller, five-blade tail rotor, swept wings of small aspect ratio and tandem cockpit. Emphasis is placed on the massive filters on air intakes of engines, their protection against ingress of mineral sands, which abound in the soil in southern Africa.

The power plant consists of two improved in South Africa turboshaft engines Turbomeca "maquila" with a capacity of 1877 hp Protektirovannnye fuel tanks stir in the middle of the fuselage, possibly using external fuel tanks. The helicopter was able to significantly reduce the vibration level due to the use of a special system of rotor vibration and transmission of the fuselage. According to test pilot by "Atlas" Trevor Ralston, the level of vibration is the same as in conventional aircraft cabin.

The developers of the helicopter paid much attention to the ability of survival on the battlefield in counter air defense systems. With regard to the tactics of "Royvalka", apparently, African experts relied more on the philosophy of the Mi-24. As you know, the Mi-24 and are used for application-bombing assault against itself on the leading edge of the defense, while the helicopter is in the zone of influence of all types of small arms and anti-aircraft missiles for quite some time.

By its very concept of "Royvalk" much closer to the Mi-24 than to the "Apache" philosophy that characterizes the survival of "Roivalka" can be summarized as follows helicopter should not be detected, and if it is found, it must not damage, the damage - even not a disaster, but if shot down too - that the helicopter should not break if dropped.

Discover the helicopter is more difficult if the lower its visibility in the visual, acoustic, thermal and radar signature reduction measures on the helicopter fairly traditional visual low visibility is achieved by using special camouflage paint, flat panel glass cockpit to reduce the glare of reflected light and a special tactics combat use of helicopters with very reduction in the effective low-altitude surface scattering contribute to the small cross sectional area of ​​the machine, swept wings of low aspect ratio instead of straight, flat panel glass with Gold-Plated

The use of helicopters in the ultra low and difficult to detect enemy radar. To reduce the visibility in the thermal range, a system of mixing of hot exhaust gases with ambient air at a ratio of 1:1, this method can reduce the infrared emission engines by 96%, and, again, reduce the heat radiation of a special camouflage paint and tactics of the helicopter.

Crew members are protected by the ceramic, and some important sites design - acrylic armor total area hotel is less than that of Russian combat helicopters, but more than the "Apache" All the vital systems of the helicopter is widely duplicated by changing the principle of protection of the more important design elements as important management helicopter can be dried and stvlyatsya pilot and weapons operator, which controls that serves both cabins helicopter is equipped with an inertial navigation system receiver and GPS satellite navigation system instrumentation helicopter was on a "glass cockpit" with multi-color LCD GOVERNMENTAL indicators.

Surveillance-attack system (OPS) TDATS provides all-weather capability of a helicopter. It consists of thermal, low-level TV camera and laser rangefinder-designator. Data can be transferred to private digital links in real time to other helicopters, "Royvalk" or a military command centers.

The helicopter is armed with an automatic 20-mm cannon GA-1 "Retler" installed on the ventral turret. It is interesting to note that the gun is GA-1 - it is nothing like a modified German gun in South Africa MG.151, - the standard weapon of German fighter planes from World War II. Representatives of the firm's "Atlas" claim that due to the low level of vibration of the helicopter shooting the bow of the gun has a very high accuracy with a single shot can hit a single soldier. However, it should be noted removal of a large gun barrel when firing the flash can blind the sensors OPS.

Six underwing pylons can be used for the suspension of various weapons: containers with 1848 mm HVP, ATGM national development "Mokopa" with a laser or radar-guided, guided missiles "air - air" V3B "kukri" produced by South African or American, "Sidewinder." The control system has two arms of computing devices, each of which serves one of the weapons wing panels.

Creating a "Royvalka" - not the first time the development of combat helicopters on their own country, never before such work is not engaged. His drums were trying to develop a rotary-wing machines in Chile, India, Romania, Poland, South Africa, but only successful full modern combat helicopter. In other countries, work was delayed for various reasons or were terminated. In the early 90's program "Royvalk" tried to freeze for political reasons: in southern Africa at that time was its "restructuring." Company "Atlas" has continued to work on the helicopter at your own risk and as a result made the right decision.

The public debut of "Royvalka" was held in 1993 at the Dubai Air Show. In subsequent years, "Kestrel bird" from South Africa has repeatedly been demonstrated in various air shows around the world.

Other model helicopters:Ka-58, RAH-66 Comanche, UH-60 Black Hawk, AH-64 Apache, Ka-52 Alligator, PAH-2 Eurocopter, Ka-50 Black Shark, AH-1W Super Cobra, Mi-24 Hint, Mi-8 Hip, AS-332 Super Puma, UH-1 Iroqoies, MD-500