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Hangar

W3a

Specifications:
The diameter of the main rotor, m 15.70
The diameter of the tail rotor, 3.3 m
Length, m
fuselage 14.21
total 18.79
Height 4.20 m
Weight, kg
Empty 3650
normal take-off 6100
maximum take-off 6400
Domestic fuel and 1700 liters + optional 1100
Engine Type 2 CCD PZL-10V (OEDB Mars HPT-10)
Power, 2 x 662 kW
Maximum speed, km / h 260
Cruising speed, km / h 243
Ferry range, km 1100
Range, 798 km
Rate of climb, m / min 612
Service ceiling, m 5430
Static ceiling, m 3500
Crew 2.1

Payload: 12 passengers or 4 stretchers and one attendant or 2000 kg of cargo in the cabin or 2100 kg suspension

W-3A Sokol - multi-purpose helicopter, developed by Polish company PZL Swidnik-based multi-purpose helicopter Kania. Construction of the five pilot helicopters W-3A Sokol began in 1978., The first of which flew on 16 November 1979., The second - May 6, 1982., And production began in 1985. The first batch of 50 vehicles was built in the mid-1991., Delivered the Polish Air Force (3 cars), Burma (12) and Aeroflot (20).

Domestic helicopter in the 1960s, developed rapidly. Along with the ongoing operation of the previously established MI-1, Mi-4, Ka-15 and Ka-18 was developed and put into mass production of new machines: the Mi-6, Ka-25, Mi-2, Ka-26, Mi- 8, Mi-10 Mi-14 and Mi-24. Rotorcraft flight-test Ka-22 was designed Ka-27. Commercially produced and a large number of engines for rotary-wing aircraft. Can be called AI-26GR with a maximum capacity of 500-615 hp (MI-1), Al-82V with a maximum capacity of 1700 hp (MI-4), Au-14VF with a maximum power 270 hp (Ka-15 and Ka-18), D-25V with a maximum capacity of 5500 hp (MI-6, Mi-10 and Ka-22), TBG-DF with a maximum capacity of 900 hp (Ka-25) GTD-350 with a maximum output of 400 hp (MI-2), M-14V26 with a maximum capacity of 325 hp (Ka-26) and TV-2-117 with a maximum capacity of 1500 hp (MI-8). Being in the operation of such diverse types of helicopters and engines fleet was accompanied by a shortage of production capacity. For this reason, the leaders of the Soviet Union at the request of the Ministry of Aviation Industry have decided to build a serial transfer of the Mi-2 and GTD-350 engines in Poland - the factories in the cities of Rzeszow and Svidník respectively. By the time the CIAM and TsAGI specialists have jointly developed a unified capacity line of engines, providing the creation of four basic options for future helicopters. One of them - the engine of GTD-350, designed by the OKB S.P.Izotova and installed on the Mi-2, was very unfortunate. He was inferior to foreign analogs in terms of specific characteristics and need of long-term fine-tuning. Low settings for the power plant reduced the performance characteristics of Mi-2. On this basis, even there was friction between the institutions of the MAP and the Ministry of Civil Aviation, at the request of which have developed and launched a series of car primarily for agricultural purposes - Ka-26 with two piston engines. The uniqueness of the situation was not only that the gas turbine engine to replace the piston back (relatively small expenditure of fuel and high acceleration are very important, especially in agricultural work in the highlands). However, MGA was the only non-military helicopter customers, and, apparently, so did not support the use of MAP piston engines, the Ka-26, considering the project a step backwards. Fighting off the opinions issued by the institutions, N.I.Kamov at a meeting called "sinker" imposed on him a GTD-350. This statement is very offended SP Izotov and further worsened the business relations between the two designers.

The above circumstances have caused a sharp decrease in demand for Mi-2 in the late 1960s. Modernization of the helicopter interfered with the imperfection of engine GTD-350. Polish designers developed their own modifications of Mi-2 with U.S. engines Alisson 250-S20V, known as "Kanya". However, supplying these machines in the USSR, the engine developers is strictly prohibited. The leaders of the Soviet aviation industry is not trying to encourage the creation of new domestic engine light class. The chief designer of the Omsk Engine-Building Design Bureau V.A.Glushenkov was ready to develop the engine GTD-11 rated power of 400 hp, but it was removed from office, transferred to a different theme, and then discharged from the system MAP. The lack of large orders for Mi-2 have a negative effect on the economic situation of the plant in Svidník. Therefore, the Poles proposed to develop and build on its territory production another, more advanced machines. In 1970, after a detailed discussion of this issue, the USSR and PPR signed an agreement to work together to build a new helicopter, received a further name-3, W-3, and "Falcon." In early December 1971 was signed by the additional inter-governmental agreement on technical cooperation in the establishment and organization of production in the PPR of new aircraft products. In January 1972 the Soviet Union came a group of Polish experts. During the six months were able to prepare preliminary design, project plan and a draft of tactical and technical requirements (TTT) for a light multipurpose helicopter W-3. In the formation of TTT interests of military and civilian customers come into conflict. As it turned out, they wanted to get a different car. Military supposed to replace the Mi-2 substantially faster helicopter, searched for a substitute civilian Mi-4 - they needed a large load capacity and range. I must say that at this time, the number of in-use Mi-4 was dramatically reduced, and the MCA leadership missed an opportunity to build a more modern helicopter - for example, on the basis of the Ka-25. Polish experts agreed to design two aircraft, one for the military, the other - for the civil, but it did not suit the Soviet side. To the solution of the problem raised MAP institutions whose representatives tried to find out first of all: why do we need such a large range and payload. Examination of flight missions Mi-4 for the year in the regions of Western Siberia, where the exploited majority of these helicopters, found that the requirements of civilian customers are well founded. An audit of climatic characteristics also moved close TTT imposed implacable opponents. Alignment of the main document was delayed, and the Poles raised the level of negotiation, asking for help to the government of his country. Finally, in September 1973 was handed over to the NDP approved customers Soviet tactical and technical requirements for a new helicopter. When drafting the TTT initiative of the Polish side engine GTD-350 engine was replaced GTD-10, constructed in KB V.A.Glushenkova for the Be-30, work on which has long ceased. Many years later the engine was in demand: first - a launcher on IL-86, then - as the main engines on the aircraft AN-28, which was built as standard in Poland. Therefore, the application of CCD-10-3 helicopter seemed logical. For the case of the Poles approached very responsibly. Here is an example. In the TTT on the engine GTD-10 (TW-10) was written demand by the noise. Chief designer of engine X. Novak asked that by this means the Soviet side. And got the answer: "Because this requirement is included in the TTT on the engine, this engine noise." Novak asked, "So, measurements will be done on the stand?". The Soviets replied: "Absolutely." Novak asked to write a requirement is not simply the word "noise" and the words "engine noise". The Soviets insisted that this was so clear, because it is a TTT on the engine. The dialogue continued: "It is now clear to you and me, but it will take, perhaps, others. They may decide otherwise, and say that the helicopter noise and engine noise are not interested." Our designers had to take the matter to completion, after which the requirement of the engine noise was eliminated, but left the requirement for noise helicopter. All the developed TTT customers have been carefully considered by the Polish side. The result is a "Protocol of the tactical-technical requirements for a light multipurpose helicopter W-3 (B-3), the turboprop engine TW-10 (GTD-10) and the main gearbox WR-3 (BP-3) provided by customers in September 1973 year. " In May 1974 the protocol approved by the customer and A.Aksenov M.Mishuk. A mixed group of Polish and Soviet specialists by the end of 1975 released a draft design of the helicopter, which was also approved.

Preliminary design led: S.Kaminsky (chief designer of the helicopter), H.Novak (chief designer of the engine), St.Bush (chief designer gear) A.Hager (chief designer of the hydraulic drive and steering), M.Tischenko (Chief Consultant helicopter, the chief designer of the Moscow Helicopter Plant. Mil) and V.Glushenkov (chief consultant on the engine and transmission, the chief designer of the Omsk Engine-Building Design Bureau). In 1976 in Poland was held in the Commission for the mock-3, which approved the layout, partially modifying the TTT at the helicopter. These changes affected the radio compass, altimeter, artificial horizon, radio stations and emergency registrar. The first prototype of the helicopter was built in the summer of 1979 on it V.Merchik, the test pilot plant FAC "PZL-Świdnik" flew November 16, 1979 The second copy of B-3 the same driver picked up in the air until early 1982 At the time the helicopter issue strongly influenced certain political events in Poland, in particular - a strike after familiarization with the layout of the military department lost all interest in the helicopter. Further work was carried out only in accordance with the requirements of civilian customers who felt that the machine is built does not match the state of the art helicopter. As a result of negotiations the Soviet and Polish specialists May 31, 1984 It was agreed to improve aircraft performance data is compared with the helicopter model III in 1974, namely:

"Increase the maximum payload inside the fuselage from 1200 kg to 1800 kg;
"Increase the maximum load on the external load from 1500 kg to 2100 kg;
"Increase the cruising speed of 500 meters from 220 km / h to 235 km / h;
"Enter an additional (emergency) mode engines with 1150 hp power saving up to an altitude of 1000 m length of 2.5 minutes.

The parties agreed to amend the document entitled "The expected operating conditions" and "program, a list of factory tests." The customer, in turn, agreed to take a helicopter to the certification test with a dramatically refined (compared to mock) the composition of equipment for visual and instrument flight. Normal take-off weight of the helicopter when it was increased to 6100 kg. The analysis showed that the helicopter-3 with improved performance almost as good as the best foreign analogues, helicopters: S-76 and Bell-412 (USA), WG-30 (England) and SA-330C (France). This engine PZL-10B on its design, the parameters of the workflow, specific fuel consumption and specific weight is at the level of foreign production of this class of helicopter engines, released in the 70s in France, Canada, USA and England (turmi-WC, RT6T-SG, Allison-250-NWB, Gem 41 Rolls-Royce, Gem 60 Rolls-Royce, the TM-333, MTM-385). Given the positive results in addressing the issues raised by civil customers, the parties agreed to begin the certification work, and joint tests on the territories of Poland and the Soviet Union. The signing of this protocol in 1984, the statement in May 1985 "operating conditions", the spread of the helicopter airworthiness NLGV-1 Soviet Union and a number of requirements NLGV-2 USSR defined the final requirements for the new machine. Helicopter-3 "Falcon" was intended for the carriage of passengers, mail and cargo inside the fuselage for cargo on external sling; for shooting in the air dropping of people and cargo, patrolling forests, pipelines, oil pipelines and power lines, police patrols, training -training and rescue missions. Finalizing the car took some modified team. Went to Chicago and got a job working at the factory St.Bush, retired H.Novak. Chief designer of the engine and transmission was M.Miklushka. The main consultant on the engine and transmission in place of V. Glushenkova V.Paschenko appointed first, and then L.Usherenko (chief designer of the Omsk Engine-Building Design Bureau). The helicopter is a B-3 "Falcon" were factory, government, operational and control tests. Factory flight tests took place during the period from November 1983 to April 1988 - in five pilot helicopters and four cars of information of the party. A total of 3386 operations with a common touch of 2434 hours. The total operating time during production tests (including land and bench tests) was 4399 hours.

Amount of flight tests conducted on the "Falcon" on the order exceeds the amount of flight tests on domestic cars. This was due to multiple changes in type design. Engineering analysis was not performed on the stage of detailed design, so the helicopter TTT often corrected. With a small amount of factory tests can not fully determine the condition of all elements of the helicopter, which affects the accident rate during the operation. Test flights performed test pilots Z.Dombski, Yu.Petruchinik, Y. Dychkovski (FAC "PZL-Świdnik"); Yu.Ivchenko, B.Barsukov, M.Pavlenko, Semionov, V.Tebenkov (LII), T . failures S.Popov, V.Tsykin (State Research Institute of Aviation). The leading engineers were testing the helicopter: M.Maevski, B.Marynyak, T.Zakzhevski, Z.Kozulo, Z.Kaminski, R.Reksa (FAC "PZL-Świdnik"); I.Tatuev, Viktor Bout, I.Trofimov (LII) L.Artamonov, V.Gladky, V.Ahromeev (SRI GA). State testing took place from December 13, 1988 to May 31, 1989 on two machines that have the factory № № 30.02.01 and 30.02.03. A total of 126 flights with a common touch 114 hours and 50 minutes. In the set-off were taken and test results of B-3 helicopters, made in conjunction with developers, FRI, and the State Research Institute of Aviation Research Institute, "Air Navigation" at the stage of production test - totaling 472 hours. Performance tests conducted in the period from October 28, 1988 to July 15, 199sm on the basis of Arkhangelsk Kotlassky UGA. Attended ten helicopters. Total flying time was 1528 hours and 25 minutes. To assess the improvements made on the activities of operational tests, in Poland, from 7 to 27iyulya 1990 passed the control tests on the modified helicopter (serial № 30.02.03). Completed 57 missions with a common touch 35 hours 25 minutes. Certification was carried out by helicopter requirements of domestic standards NLGV-1-2 NLGV and U.S. airworthiness standards of FAR-29. The helicopter PZL "Falcon" was the following: "two certificates for compliance with NLGV NLGV-1 and-2, issued by the Polish Aviation Authority oversight GILTS (1990) and the Aviation Register of Interstate Aviation Committee (1992)," three certificates in the U.S. compliance with airworthiness requirements of FAR-29, issued GILTS (January 1993), the American aviation oversight authority FAA (May 1993) and the German aviation authority LBA surveillance (December 1994) installed on a helicopter engine PZL-10B received a certificate for compliance with U.S. standards of airworthiness issued by the Aviation Supervision FAA (May 1993). Certification of the helicopter on the domestic standards was carried out by specialists FAC "PZL-Świdnik", "FAC-Rzeszow" GILTS, IAC, LII, TsAGI, CIAM, VIAM, NIAT, NIID, the Institute of Glass, State Research Institute of Aviation Research Institute and the "Air Navigation". In the process of certification of the nation's first helicopter conducted a full technical analysis of the causes of failures and functional systems, the calculation of the probabilities of their occurrence, the classification of the functional consequences of failure and degree of risk taking into account the phase of flight and the external environment. These studies are performed Grigoriev and Borisov (LII), M.Konaschuk, and A.Mahon V.Sadurski (FAC "PZL-Świdnik") under the supervision of a specialist Aviation Register of IAC O.L.Selyakovoy. We used native methods. Questions concerning the list of settlement of cases and the valuation of special situations in relation to the helicopter as a whole, we have worked deeper than in foreign regulations. As a result, had to seriously refine the system in order to improve helicopter flight safety. These data are also taken into account during the flight test, flight training, and technical documentation. In particular, the program has been developed to assess the functional systems in flight. The consequences of each failure at various stages of flight, evaluated three test-pilot: Z.Dombski (FAC "PZL-Świdnik") Yu.Ivchenko (LII) and G.Provalov (State Research Institute of Aviation). The number of flights has increased, allowing to fully appreciate the consequences of failure and make appropriate recommendations for their parry. In the process of certification of non-conformity with regulatory requirements found a number of systems and components, which bought the Poles in Russia and installed on the helicopter as per customer requirements.

Armament:

(optional): DAR-two 7.62-mm machine gun
The combat load - 344 kg for 4 hardpoints
CP 81-mm or 122 mm NUR, and / or containers with 7.62-mm machine guns, antitank guided missiles, or 4x2.

Other model helicopters:Ka-58, RAH-66 Comanche, UH-60 Black Hawk, AH-64 Apache, Ka-52 Alligator, PAH-2 Eurocopter, Ka-50 Black Shark, AH-1W Super Cobra, Mi-24 Hint, Mi-8 Hip, AS-332 Super Puma, UH-1 Iroqoies, MD-500